Transformational leadership increases employees motivation and involvement
Transformational leadership has shown success in managing their business internally and externally well. Air Asia is one of the companies that have been managed under transformational leaders, Datuk Tony Fernandes. Datuk Tony Fernandes has been around motivating the employees to work with him in different job positions. In Air Asia, most of the employees are multi-tasking their ability and skills due to lack number of employees. In order to retain the employees, employee??™s motivation and involvements are required to show that their presence is worth a lot to the company. That is why many transformational leaders motivate their employees during their hard times (especially in the case of multitasking employees of AirAsia). Not to mention, Datuk Tony Fernandes always bring himself to work in low-level positions when he has free times in order for him to see how the other crew members are doing. This kind of leadership brought employees involvement into their works that increases the motivation as a whole.
Transformational leaderships occurred when a leader transforms or changes his or her employees or team members in different direction with same goals (George & Jones, 2012). There are many ways a leader can enhance the ability of their team members. In the case of transformational leadership, the leader managed to make the followers or employees to trust on the leaders for its decisions, personal and its solutions. It means the leader will not backstabbed the follower, instead work along with the follower to complete a great thing. Then, the leader will perform his or her behaviors in order to increases the achievements of the organizational goals. Most leaders will ask their team members to complete this and that without giving proper directions. Not in the case of transformational leaders. They reminded, they repeated and they make sure the followers and employees understand what they wants by working together with them to achieve their goals. It means that cooperation are highly valued by the transformational leaders when completing a task. Also, transformational leaders are always motivated their followers to perform at the highest levels of their abilities. It means they trust and believe in their followers as well as their capabilities to complete the works within times. That is what transformational leaderships defined in the textbook.
As the markets are becoming challenging, the organizations need a good and transformational leaders to keep the success floating. According to Allen & Rosen (2007), they stated that a good leader will lead the employees, motivate them to work better and treats the whole teams as family members. Steve Jobs is one of the examples of transformational leadership. He changes the vision, mission and minds of his employees with encouragement and involvement into their works. He made them understand their works and appreciate their success over the launching of products and products sales. That is what an organization needs to keep the employees fit for the challenges in the market nowadays. As competitions are greater lately, the employees can be easily de-motivated. However, it can be solved when the leaders involve in the life of their teams and employees and motivating them to the ends.
According to Zaccaro, Rittman & Marks (2001), there are several challenges that may arise for the leaders in leading the teams to success. One of the challenges is aligning the individual goals with a shared mission. In a team, it consist several individuals with different goals, missions and vision that serve their purposes of works. A leader must be very good to align all those goals from individuals needs into one mission, vision and goal. For example, Steve Jobs always remind his employees that they needs to fulfill the mission, vision and goals he stated for them. It is to bring success and number one for Apple products which he managed to aligned each individual??™s goals into achieving the organization??™s goals. Other challenges are managing the resources among the teams, creating a good climate of trust and supports and aligning the ways information transferred between the members. If the jobs required different completion from one parties to other parties, the leaders need to motivate the employees to pass the jobs to the other parties and complete the tasks within the time.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Transformational Leaderships
Transformational leadership has been defined above in the introduction. It happened when a leader decides to changes his or her followers??™ behaviors, minds and attitudes into completing a task together in a group. The leader himself or herself will work together with their team members into completing the task required by the organizations. Due to that, the leaders firstly need to be able to gain the trust of their team members. Normally, group members consists of several employees working in different departments and grouped together to solve a particular problem. This created problems when individuals have different goals, needs and purposes in solving the problems. Hence, transformational leaders have the abilities to match all those different goals, mission and purposes into one goal, mission and purpose by making the members trust in him or her as a leader. It worked well for most transformational leaders because followers certainly want to trust the leaders for his or her actions and decisions. That is how transformational leaders charmed their followers into trusting them.
Besides, transformational leaders have the abilities to increase their subordiantes??™ awareness of the importance of their tasks and the importance of performing them well. This is how the transformational leaders are able to align all the different goals, missions and purposes from different individuals in the team into one goal. Once the followers understand the goals, the leaders will be there to help in all the processes regarding to the tasks. Mostly, transformational leaders work together with the followers and motivate them all along the ways. Datuk Tony Fernandes, Bill Gates and Oprah are the good examples of how closes the relationship between the employees and herself. Ellen Degeneres is one of the good examples that care about her employees??™ needs for growth, development and accomplishments towards achieving the best against each others.
2.2 Transformational Leaderships with Employees Motivations and Employees Involvement
How transformational leaders increase their employee??™s motivations Well, the truth is that transformational leaders are super cool about most of the things. They have the abilities to increase the motivations by being at the side of the employees or followers during the ways. Ellen Degeneres has been challenging his or her employees into pranking her as she is not easily scared. She indeed pranks most of the employees that brought them closure as a family. Then, the employees themselves worked together to prank her because she is thinking of it as their personal growth. She never gets angry at them when they managed to scared her. This is what transformational leaders did. They do not think an employee is an employee. They thought of them as family members and strive to work together for the best of others. Ellen Degeneres keeps motivating the employees to come out with new developments of shows constantly. Instead, she herself will sit down with the team members to work it out. This is a good example of how transformational leadership increases employee??™s motivations and employees involvements.
Chun, Yammarino, Dionne, Sosik & Moon (2009) found that leadership is a natural ability with multiple levels of phenomenon or examples. It does not happen between individual leaders and followers only, but it happened between leaders and their teams. Sometimes, the leaders can lead several teams in the organizations. CEO is one of the best examples for transformational leaderships where they are required to assist various teams in various departments to solve a particular problem. Datuk Tony Fernandes is a good example of the leadership by nature. His leadership is one of the uncommon characteristics because he himself is willing to work in the reception areas, engineering and other departments. It is because he is putting everyone to work in multi-tasking levels along with him to increase their skills, knowledge and abilities. That is how the employees followed his behaviors and attitudes, as well as trust his decisions and solution. The followers trust the actions of their leaders when they knew the leaders have been through the same ways and cases as theirs. That is how a transformational leader motivates their employees to work better and strive for success despite the situation is hard.
Judge & Piccolo (2004) agreed with Podsakoff, MacKenzie & Bommer (1996) that individuals who perceived their supervisors with transformational leadership characteristics leads to more job satisfactions and positive relationship between them. It has been proven through the Podsakoff et. al (1990) where he firstly found the positive relationship between the supervisors with transformational leadership and their employees (individuals base).
(Liu, Siu, & Shi, 2010)) stated that transformational leaders show more considerations to each individual in the team. Due to that, they will be able to recognize each individual??™s abilities, aspirations and needs which allowed them to respond carefully and accurately to meet their needs. Transformational leaders do not see every individual as one individual. They see each individual with different individual??™s attitudes, behaviors, minds, needs and abilities that have different functions for different needs. Chun et. al (2009) found that the transformational leaders have the abilities to adjust their inspirational, motivational, and idealization to each individual well. They influence the behaviors of the employees by showing their behaviors and how they try to align their goals to the specific goals and interests of the individual followers. They also agreed that each individual follower is capable to voice out their concerns in an intellectual stimulating behavior (Liu et.al) (Klein, Danasereau, & Hall, 1994). They aligned all of those differences in every individual to meet the best requirements the organization is seeking for. Yes, that is what made transformational leaders more favorable compared to traditional leaders.
Klein et. al. (1994) considered that individual??™s values have positive relationship to the team values as it is not only informative but it is necessary to analyze an individual??™s placement. The individual values are the perceptions of the followers on the supervisors that carry transformational leadership. In the other case, the team value is more on the perceptions of the team itself on their transformational supervisors. Bass and colleagues (20003) observed how the team perceived their supervisors with transformational leadership characteristics towards the unit performance on U.S. Army groups during their combat simulation. It is because these supervisors don??™t force them to work it out, but work together by keeping everyone??™s safe and care for every single person in the team. That??™s how trust is capable to be taken and that motivate the employees to strive along with the supervisors.
Schaubroeck et. al. (2007) found that there is highly importance on the way team perceived their supervisors with transformational leadership characteristics toward team performances even in the financial services team. It means transformational leaders generate success regardless of their departments because they knew the directions or path that they need to lead the followers. Not only in financial services team, had it occurred in the research and development teams. (Brown & Moshavi, 2002)Eisenbeiss and colleagues (2008) found that there are positive relationships on the team perceptions towards their supervisors with transformational leadership characteristics on innovation in the research and development teams. Wang and Howell (2010) has found that when a team with transformational leaders had positive relationship with the team performance. It means that the job satisfactions of the individual followers??™ increased when they have interactions and experiences with transformational supervisors as well as the behaviors towards the other team members and the whole team. It is because transformational leaders tailor the behaviors of each individual follower in his or her team. For example, Chun et. Al (2009) stated that transformational leaders develop and communicate the vision of the team success and achievements in future.
Transformational leaders always show consideration towards many followers when there are interpersonal conflicts among the team members. The leaders normally will try to keep the team members cooperate and settle their conflicts in the same days. Normally, transformational leaders will listen to the conflicts and give a very good solution to keep everyone happy to work in the same team. It is because transformational leader??™s needs to make sure that the whole group members are working together towards the same goals, mission and purposes. Thus, it increases trust between each member towards transformational leaders because the leaders hears and solve the problems all together to keep everyone??™s safe in the line.
The researcher decided to investigate any positive or negative relationship between transformational leadership, the trust between supervisors and members, job satisfaction and team performance. Transformational leaders are known to be able to stimulate their followers to create innovative ideas for their works. Also, they are known to be able to motivate the members better than the traditional leaders. They can motivate their employees to pursue challenging research needs to meet with the long-term goals. Also, all the employees prefer transformational leaders because they felt secured and safe with their leaders. They felt like they are treated as family members compared to traditional leaders that treated most of the employees as employees. There are high statistics shows there are lower job turnover in a company leads by transformational leaders. For example, Google is one of the company leads by transformational leaders that allowed the employees to have fun and trust the employees well during their working days. Even they said that the employees do not want to leave Google due to its benefits and freedom of trusts.
Besides, Brown & Moshavi (2002) stated that transformational leaders have the abilities to promote their followers??™ academic success by teaching and coaching them through the processes as well as showing very good value-based behaviors. It is to ensure that the followers felt motivated to keep staying on their preferred career path despite the challenges they may surface. These researchers founds that there are some importance of transformational leadership in the academic areas because transformational leadership knows what they needs to do and say to motivate their followers. (Allen & Meyer, 1990) Avolio, Zhu, Koh & Bhatia (2004) and Dhawan & Mulla (2011) found that transformational leadership has made an impact on the employee??™s commitments towards their organizations. It proves that the employees felt secured to involve in any project and any task due to their commitment towards the company. Hence, employees involvements are highly when the teams has a transformational leader to motivate them.
The researchers found that moderate levels of CEO transformational leadership has produced higher level of ambiguity and confusion for top executives because the needs of social exchange between the CEO and top executives. It is almost similar to CEO that shows laissez-faire leadership to their employees. As a CEO, they cannot feel half-hearted over the decisions and solutions to the problems arise in their business. They need to stay firm and strong over the decisions they have chosen. Hence, the CEO needs to have organizational commitments as it will motivate the employees to strive better for the future. Allen & Meyer (1990) found that there is continuing commitment that allows the employees to stay within the organizations as it is relatively high cost of leaving the company. That is way to motivate the employees through benefits and others including employees involvements in the tasks or projects given by the managements.
Transformational leaders have proven their success with managing the employees, teams and organizations. They have greater missions to complete with a smoother vision for the future. The one good thing about this is that they are capable to communicate to their team members regarding to their missions, goals and visions well. It motivated the employees to feels the same ways like the leaders does. That is how the employees felt easier with transformational leaders compared to traditional leaders. Traditional leaders are more into autocratic leaderships. It is more on do-as-what-I-say. It is not about cooperation or teamwork because what the traditional leaders said, it must be done that way. Any other way will leads to anger or disrespect although the work is done. Traditional leaders value the success higher than the employees. More job turnover occurred in the traditional leadership compared to transformational leadership. For example, Hewlett-Packard is under traditional leadership with high job turnover and unethical business conducts. It is because the employees are told to do as what the leaders said even if it is wrong. This de-motivated the employees rather than motivating them.
As what mentioned above, previous researchers found that transformational leaders are capable to not only motivate their employees well, but guiding them into the process of the tasks to achieve the goals. It means they prefer the employees to involve in the tasks along with them. That is what increases job satisfaction. An employee felt satisfied when they are trusted to involve in a project or task given by their leader. Transformational leaders normally will create a scenario that is easily understood by their members. Then, they will guide along the way to the end of the tasks or projects. Not to mention, transformational leaders made the employees trust them and trust the employees in return. As result, the completion of works and its success rate is higher with transformational leaders.
There are many examples of transformational leaders. Firstly, we can take Air Asia. Air Asia is currently handled by Datuk Tony Fernandes. He himself is a transformational leader where he releases his mission, vision and goals to keep the airplane rate cheaper for the consumers. It turned out that most of the consumers love this airplane and services. They choose Air Asia compared to other cheap airlines in Malaysia because it is simply cheap to fly around Malaysia and overseas. Air Asia has thousands of employees working in the organizations. Despite that, Datuk Tony Fernandes took his time to work in various departments regardless of his positions. He will work in receptions to understand the problems arise in receptions and assist the customers. He will work in engineering to check the airplane programs along with the engineers. Simply, he is willing to get down motivating his employees to strive for the best despite the situation of works are hectic. He even understands the personal growth of the employees by opening an academy to send for training to increase the employees??™ skills, abilities and knowledge.
Another example of transformational leaders are GOOGLE founders. Google is one of the best companies to work with. Nobody will expect that Google will become famous in a short-time period. Transformational leaders always have new visions, missions and goals. Apparently, Larry Page and Sergey Brin are transformational leaders that changed the ways information is released to the consumers for free. Unlike Bing and others, Google has more listing of information and website for their consumers. Larry Page and Sergey Brin trusted their employees as a whole and treated them like a family. The employees are allowed to bring their dogs or any pet into the company as long as they finished their works in time. Amazingly, transformational leaders love to trust their employees and receive trust in return. That is why high loyalty and low job turnover occurred in Google. It is because the freedom and trust, the employees tend to stay. As long as the work is done, Larry Page and Sergey Brin don??™t mind what the employees do during the works. They can play ping pong, snooker or anything that Page and Brin has provided in the company. They even provided free meals 24 hours to keep the employees active to complete the works or technical errors around the clock. Hence, the employees are more motivated and involved in the tasks given to them.
As a summary, there are three things we can say about transformational leadership. It is one of the best leadership to increase job satisfaction in the business. Transformational leaders are more close to their employees which made them undeniably trustable and fun to work with. The leaders knew what to say to the employees when they are having a hard time and gave them space to keep them working along the pace. They do not rush the employees but they tend to take it slower. They have the abilities to motivate their employees with great words and great spiritual supports to make the best out of the employees. They also will keep making employees involve in their tasks or projects without neglecting them alone in the process. It is because they believe every employee has different abilities, skills and knowledge that when it is combined, it makes great results. Not to forget, they believe that every employee has the right to involve in a task that makes them learned about new things which are useful for their personal growth. As overall, transformational leaderships generates success in managing team and organizations.
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